What is water filtration? The term refers to all purification methods in which an aqueous solution is passed under pressure of varying intensity through the porous structure of a filter substance, a device or material capable of retaining suspended and dissolved particles of a certain structure and size.
The choice of adsorbent during filtration and the method of water purification are mainly determined by the initial composition of the water.
Mechanical cleaning system that allows you to remove large contaminants: silt, sand, soil particles, scale - all solid inclusions, the size of which is a few microns. This is the initial stage of any water filtration system.
Adsorbent-based filters in which contaminating compounds are selectively absorbed and precipitated in the surface layer of adsorbent materials: activated carbon, zeolite, silica gel.
Multicomponent loading in ion exchange filters , where each layer of resin binds a certain type of contaminant.
A reverse osmosis membrane, filtration through its elements is carried out under excessively high hydrostatic pressure of varying intensity applied to the purified aqueous solution.
Water filtration is the process of removing suspended impurities, compounds, biological components, dissolved gases from natural aqueous solutions. The main indicators that need to be adjusted for tap water extracted from a well or borehole are:
high content of metal salts - iron and manganese ,
hydrogen sulfide ,
increased rigidity ,
colloidal organic compounds,
Bacteria and Microorganisms.
The water filtration system is selected after analyzing the inflow source, and the quality is always evaluated by the following parameters:
Physical: temperature, clarity and colour, odour and taste, presence of precipitates.
Chemistry: pH index, oxidizing properties, salt content, composition of dissolved gases, concentration of metallic and non-metallic ions, organic colloidal impurities.
Biological: No pathogenic microorganisms, bacteria, viruses.
Thorough water purification is necessary when taking water from wells or dug wells and filtering drinking water from public water supplies - after all, they go a long way through the pipes to your apartment. The liquid filtered through a sophisticated post-cleaning system is transparent in appearance and pleasant in taste. It is rich in compounds useful to the body, normalized in content. Due to the elimination of excess ions, hardness salts, iron compounds therein, there is no scale and deposits on the heating elements of hydraulic engineering. Cutlery, plumbing and bed linen are kept clean. Softened water has a positive effect on the skin, hair and reduces the consumption of soap detergent compounds. The water filtration system in the house is selected based on chemical analysis.
Own Well promises each owner to provide clean water on his land. In practice, things are not so rosy. Groundwater is characterized by high mineral salt content and low organic matter impurities. Surface water and groundwater often communicate with each other, thereby altering their chemical balance. In all cases, filtration of water from the well is necessary to make it of consumer quality, and the choice of system should be based on chemical analysis of the water sample.
In choosing a method of filtering water from a well or well, the quality of the aqueous solution from the water supply at different times of the year; the extent and likelihood of domestic and industrial wastewater contamination are considered. The composition of natural water is constantly changing due to continuous redox processes, mixing of waters of different origins, precipitation of salts present in them. The gauge index varies with temperature and pressure, the surface of the dispersed particles, and due to ion exchange between oceans and between ocean and freshwater. Changes occur in the enrichment of trace elements in groundwater due to biochemical processes. The water quality to check for changes in the nature, composition, and concentration of impurities contained therein, and the water treatment hydraulic system should be adjusted.
Modern installations for water treatment have different design features to suit the task to be solved. The number of water filtration steps is calculated taking into account the results of the chemical analysis of the water sample, the required indicators and the estimated volume.
Regardless of the source of the water supply, the first stage of filtration is the initial purification of the water from suspended particulates: sediment, sand, scale, rust. Removal of impurities by the water flow through the filter element, mesh, disc type coarse filter.
Cartridge filters consist of a housing and an inserted replaceable filter element with honeycomb (1-5μm) filter media. They are easy to use and easy to install.
Rinse the filter with plastic or metal mesh to capture debris. They can have a car wash or manually remove accumulated debris.
In disc devices, water penetrates holes in the grooves of the plate during compression, and contaminants are retained on the surface filter layer.
The most commonly used combined filtering comes from a grid or disk screen and the filter element behind it.
A convenient adsorption method is based on the immobilization of impurity particles on the active surface of the adsorbent due to physicochemical processes. The most common materials are: coal, polypropylene, aluminosilicates. Dolomite-added activated carbon is used for water purification in everyday life in the form of filter cartridges and main complex water treatment filters. It effectively removes chlorine compounds, organic matter, bacteriological impurities from water while maintaining salt composition. The selective addition of ion exchange resins to the filter load removes other contaminants, including heavy metals. A carbon filter purchased to filter the water in your apartment can be installed under the sink. They are installed individually or together with a reverse osmosis unit as part of a comprehensive cleaning.
A catalytically loaded aeration and reagent filtration system is recommended for high quality water purification from iron (and existing manganese). It can be natural or specially manufactured materials: carbon sulfide, pyrolusite, MGS, Birm. Pressure and non-pressure aeration towers help remove dissolved hydrogen sulfide from the water, oxidizing iron compounds to insoluble forms through subsequent filtration . The use of cationized water is delayed when the treated aqueous solution is not enriched with oxygen on the way to the cationic filter when the simultaneous removal of Fe and salts that cause hardness is required.
Filtration is one of the methods of water softening. The hardness is due to the presence of ions Ca and Mg, which form insoluble bicarbonate under certain conditions. They cause limescale deposits on household appliances and industrial equipment. Ion exchange filters are used for elimination. They are available as stand-alone elements or in combination with carbon blocks. Unlike conventional filtration through particulate materials, ion exchange methods use targeted changes to the ionic composition of the aqueous solution when the composition of the aqueous solution does not change. The water flows through fine-grained ion exchange materials - ion exchangers, which are prefilled with special tanks - ion filters.
Membrane methods of water filtration are used in reverse osmosis plants . They work on the basis of the physicochemical process of air pressure membrane separation. The main element of a reverse osmosis pipeline is a semipermeable selective membrane. Under the influence of pressure, the water flow is divided into filtrate, which passes through the membrane pores and concentrates to linger on the filter surface. The cleaning effect depends on the type of membrane and ranges from 60% to 99.5%. In order to saturate the water with useful compounds, a mineralizer is installed at the outlet of the reverse osmosis unit.
Water filtration and disinfection methods include chlorination. To save consumption of fine filters when water is drawn from artificial wells , UV disinfectants are introduced into the filtration scheme. The working principle of the sterilizer is based on the effect of UV light with a wavelength of 200-400nm on purified water. The standard value for germicidal radiation for mercury-argon and mercury-quartz lamps is 260 nm. The lamps are concealed in special quartz housings that protect them from water flow and prevent cooling of the emitting elements. Multiple lamps can be placed in one housing.
What is better for water filtration is up to the customer to decide. The selection of the filtration system must be made individually, depending on the type and task of the water supply source. In one case, installing a filter unit under the kitchen or sink may be sufficient, while in another, the entire water system of a house, apartment, or office requires a main filter with several sequential cleaning stages. With active water drawn from a well, it is necessary to assess changes in water composition over time to study the characteristics of water occurring in your area. Regardless of the source received, the final water filtration program should be developed based on laboratory studies of its composition, taking into account estimated consumption, production rate, degree of purification required, and characteristics of equipment maintenance.
We provide an efficient selection of water filtration systems based on inspection of objects, analysis of water intake networks and structural schemes, sampling and water studies in accredited research and production laboratories. The self-produced water treatment plant allows us to individually solve the tasks of water treatment, timely modernization and post-warranty maintenance of installed filtration systems. You can contact us in any convenient way: by phone +86 18058865291, by email@example.com or by ordering a call back.